aocalypse

Monday, August 19, 2013

HHV-6 and Endothelial Cells

Infection of Endothelial Cells by Human Herpesvirus-6 Is Associated With Profound Changes in the Healing Process, With Possible Consequences for Cardiac Disease and Cancer

BALTIMORE, MD--(eMediaWorld - June 27, 2008) - A new study suggests for the first time that human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infects and persists in a dormant state in endothelial cells, the cells lining blood vessels, and causes these cells to lose their ability to grow, to form new blood vessels, and to take part in healing processes. This finding was announced at the 6th International Conference for HHV-6 & 7 by a team of Italian researchers, professors Arnaldo Caruso of the University of Brescia and Dario Di Luca of the University of Ferrara.
The experiments performed on pure endothelial cells grown in the laboratory allowed Professors Caruso and Di Luca to discover that U94, a viral protein produced during the viral latency, is responsible for these biological effects. In fact, during the conference, German researchers reported that HHV-6 is found in cardiomyopathy. "It is possible that the expression of U94 damages endothelial cells of the heart, causing the disease or delaying recovery," said Dr. Di Luca. "The understanding of this phenomenon could be important for the diagnosis and management of some heart diseases," he added.
An impact on tumor-fighting therapies?
The production of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is a very important biological process that occurs naturally in the body. However, an excess of angiogenesis can be harmful. If tumors do not form new blood vessels, they do not receive enough blood with the necessary nutrients and cannot grow. Therefore, blocking angiogenesis is important for stopping tumor growth. Currently, the Italian research team is performing advanced experiments toward the development of new anti-tumor therapies based on the inhibition of blood vessel formation by U94. The production of U94 might limit tumor growth by preventing the formation of new blood vessels.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a virus commonly found in healthy adults. The virus infects for the first time during early childhood, causing a few days of fever and a temporary skin rash; spontaneous healing quickly occurs. After this first encounter with the body, the virus persists in a dormant state. This life-long latent infection usually does not cause any disease. However, the virus can activate, usually in patients with immune deficiencies or taking immune suppressive drugs, and can cause life- threatening diseases. Other researchers have reported that HHV-6 may be linked also to diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, chronic fatigue syndrome and epilepsy.

HHV-6 infects human aortic and heart microvascular endothelial cells, increasing their ability to secrete proinflammatory chemokines.

Caruso A, Rotola A, Comar M, Favilli F, Galvan M, Tosetti M, Campello C, Caselli E, Alessandri G, Grassi M, Garrafa E, Cassai E, Di Luca D.
Institute of Microbiology, University of Brescia Medical School, Italy.
Endothelial cells are important targets for herpesvirus infection. To evaluate the biological effects of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection, adult heart microvascular and aortic endothelial cells were examined for in vitro susceptibility to HHV-6 and for the alterations induced by viral infection on the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that HHV-6 replicates in endothelium in the absence of cytopathic effects, and that viral sequences were present in 20% umbilical vein and in 10% aortic and 1% microvascular endothelium. HHV-6 infection upregulated the production of MCP-1 and IL-8, with differences observed between aortic and microvascular endothelium. These findings demonstrate that endothelial cells represent a potential reservoir for HHV-6 infection, and the altered pattern of chemokine production can lead to attraction of immunocompetent cells and to the development of inflammatory processes. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
J Med Virol. 2002 Aug;67(4):528-33.


If HHV-6 is the real cause of AIDS, here are some of the implications:

1. HIV is a massive scientific fraud. Something akin to a Ponzi scheme. Scientists who challenged the HIV theory of AIDS (the ones who have been thuggishly censored and silenced) turn out to be on the money.

2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Autism (and many other so-called HHV-6 related mysterious epidemics) are part of the so-called AIDS epidemic.  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Autism both are clearly the results of the ravages of HHV-6.

3. AIDS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has been artificially and politically separated into two epidemics. We are living in a period of CFS/AIDS apartheid. So-called AIDS patients have to sit in the back of the HHV-6 epidemic bus while the befuddled HHV-6/CFS patients and HHV-6/Autism victims sit up front. Nobody is well-served.

4. AIDS is not a sexually transmitted disease. That paradigm has set a scapegoating and antigay agenda in place that the public thinks is solidly based on science. It is only based on homophobic and racist nosology, epidemiology and virology. The scientists behind the paradigm are charlatans and crooks.

5. The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and the Pasteur Institute in Paris have a great deal in common with the institutions of Nazi medicine. For Blacks, everything these institutions have done in the name of AIDS really constitutes a second Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.

Elements of a Scientific Ponzi Scheme like the Montagnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up

A scientific Ponzi scheme begins with a central seminal or foundational scientific fraud and is  sometimes built on an infrastructure of smaller scientific frauds. Like the fake dividends issued in a strictly financial Ponzi scheme, a scientific Ponzi scheme issues fake dividends in the form of ongoing fraud-based research often framed as "breakthroughs" and bogus extrapolations which make it look like everything is above board and that what, in reality, is scientific fraud, appears to the rest of the scientific community and the public as good faith progress.

A classic scientific Ponzi scheme like the Montgnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up include elements like these:

1. Nosological fraud.

2. Epidemiological fraud.

3. Virological fraud.

4. Treatment fraud.

5. Public health policy fraud.

6. Concealment of negative scientific data and paradigm-challenging anomalies.

7.  Use of an elite network of "old boys" and pseudo-activist provocateurs to censor critics and whistleblowers.

8. Chronic obscurantism.

9. If necessary, vigilantism and witch-hunts against any intellectuals, scientists, or citizens who constitute any form of resistance to the Ponzi scheme.

10. A subservient scientific press that is used as a conveyor belt for the Ponzi scheme's propaganda.

Everything always looks like it is working perfectly in a Ponzi scheme, until the moment comes when someone look at the books and blows the whistle.  Hopefully, that game-changing moment for the Montagnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up is coming soon.


HHV-6 and the Brain


Novel Herpesvirus Protein is Associated with Altered Nervous System Cell Activity and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Depression

"A study suggests that a "smoldering" central nervous system (CNS) infection may play a role in conditions that plague millions of Americans. Kazuhiro Kondo, MD, PhD, of the Jikei University Medical School in Tokyo identified a novel human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) protein present in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients but not healthy controls that may contribute to psychological symptoms often associated with that and other disorders."
"Kondo identified a novel HHV-6 protein associated with latent (non-replicating) HHV-6-infected nervous system and immune cells. Transfecting this new protein, called SITH-1 (Small Intermediate Stage Transcript of HHV-6), into nervous system cells called glial cells, resulted in greatly increased intracellular calcium levels. Increased intracellular calcium levels are believed to play an important role in psychological disorders and can contribute to cell death. Expressing the SITH protein though the use of an adenoviral vector in mouse resulted in manic-like behavior."
"A serological study indicated that 71% of CFS patients with psychological symptoms and none of the health controls possessed the antibody against the SITH-1 protein (p < .0001). Further tests indicated that 53% of depression and 76% of bipolar depression patients possessed the antibody."
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/112548.php

"HHV-6 is probably the most neurotropic virus known. Neuroinvasion has been documented in infants with primary infection, in focal encephalitis, in children and adults with AIDS, in recipients of bone marrow transplants, as well as in immunologically competent children and adults. Challoner et al. (78) reported viral DNA sequences in approximately two thirds of brain specimens and viral antigen expression in a number of cell types (e.g., astrocytes, macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels) at very similar frequencies in specimens from healthy persons and multiple sclerosis patients. Astrocytes were confirmed as a susceptible cell population, although in a subsequent study only samples from AIDS patients were positive (79)" http://www.cdc.gov/Ncidod/eid/vol5no3/campadelli.htm

Infection with an Endemic Human Herpesvirus Disrupts Critical Glial Precursor Cell Properties

The Journal of Neuroscience, May 19, 2004, 24(20):4875-4883;

Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway

Abstract

Viruses have been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson’s, and multiple sclerosis. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a neurotropic virus that has been associated with a wide variety of neurologic disorders, including encephalitis, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis. Currently, the route of HHV-6 entry into the CNS is unknown. Using autopsy specimens, we found that the frequency of HHV-6 DNA in the olfactory bulb/tract region was among the highest in the brain regions examined. Given this finding, we investigated whether HHV-6 may infect the CNS via the olfactory pathway. HHV-6 DNA was detected in a total of 52 of 126 (41.3%) nasal mucous samples, showing the nasal cavity is a reservoir for HHV-6. Furthermore, specialized olfactory-ensheathing glial cells located in the nasal cavity were demonstrated to support HHV-6 replication in vitro. Collectively, these results support HHV-6 utilization of the olfactory pathway as a route of entry into the CNS.
Erin Harbertsa
Karen Yaoa
Jillian E. Wohlera,
Dragan Maricc,
Joan Ohayona,
Robert Henkind, and
Steven Jacobson
Edited by Robert C. Gallo, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, MD,
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/08/01/1105143108.abstract
"Virologist Dharam Ablashi, who codiscovered HHV-6 and now is scientific director of the HHV-6 Foundation in Santa Barbara, Calif., says the results may be just the tip of an iceberg. 'As research techniques improve,' he says, 'we may find that most neurological conditions are caused by viruses that enter the brain through the nasal passages.'"
http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/333083/title/Commonvirusmayrideupnoseto_brain

Cortical liquefaction in severe human herpesvirus 6 encephalopathy

Takanashi et al. Neurology.2006; 66: 452-453


If HHV-6 is the real cause of AIDS, here are some of the implications:

1. HIV is a massive scientific fraud. Something akin to a Ponzi scheme. Scientists who challenged the HIV theory of AIDS (the ones who have been thuggishly censored and silenced) turn out to be on the money.

2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Autism (and many other so-called HHV-6 related mysterious epidemics) are part of the so-called AIDS epidemic.  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Autism both are clearly the results of the ravages of HHV-6.

3. AIDS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has been artificially and politically separated into two epidemics. We are living in a period of CFS/AIDS apartheid. So-called AIDS patients have to sit in the back of the HHV-6 epidemic bus while the befuddled HHV-6/CFS patients and HHV-6/Autism victims sit up front. Nobody is well-served.

4. AIDS is not a sexually transmitted disease. That paradigm has set a scapegoating and antigay agenda in place that the public thinks is solidly based on science. It is only based on homophobic and racist nosology, epidemiology and virology. The scientists behind the paradigm are charlatans and crooks.

5. The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and the Pasteur Institute in Paris have a great deal in common with the institutions of Nazi medicine. For Blacks, everything these institutions have done in the name of AIDS really constitutes a second Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.

Elements of a Scientific Ponzi Scheme like the Montagnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up

A scientific Ponzi scheme begins with a central seminal or foundational scientific fraud and is  sometimes built on an infrastructure of smaller scientific frauds. Like the fake dividends issued in a strictly financial Ponzi scheme, a scientific Ponzi scheme issues fake dividends in the form of ongoing fraud-based research often framed as "breakthroughs" and bogus extrapolations which make it look like everything is above board and that what, in reality, is scientific fraud, appears to the rest of the scientific community and the public as good faith progress.

A classic scientific Ponzi scheme like the Montgnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up include elements like these:

1. Nosological fraud.

2. Epidemiological fraud.

3. Virological fraud.

4. Treatment fraud.

5. Public health policy fraud.

6. Concealment of negative scientific data and paradigm-challenging anomalies.

7.  Use of an elite network of "old boys" and pseudo-activist provocateurs to censor critics and whistleblowers.

8. Chronic obscurantism.

9. If necessary, vigilantism and witch-hunts against any intellectuals, scientists, or citizens who constitute any form of resistance to the Ponzi scheme.

10. A subservient scientific press that is used as a conveyor belt for the Ponzi scheme's propaganda.

Everything always looks like it is working perfectly in a Ponzi scheme, until the moment comes when someone look at the books and blows the whistle.  Hopefully, that game-changing moment for the Montagnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up is coming soon.


What is the role of HHV-6 in Kaposi's Sarcoma?

Research Suggests it Has One.


Human Herpesvirus 6 Activates Lytic Cycle Replication of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

Chun Lu, Yi Zeng, Zan Huang, Li Huang, Chao Qian, Guixia Tang and Di Qin
From the Department of Microbiology and Immunology,* Laboratory of Molecular Virology, and the Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine,{dagger} Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; and the Department of Cell Biology, Neurology, and Anatomy,{ddagger} Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is a {gamma}-herpesvirus consistently identified in Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman’s disease. KSHV infection appears to be necessary, but not be sufficient for development of KS without other co-factors. However, factors that facilitate KSHV to cause KS have not been well defined. Because patients with KS are often immunosuppressed and susceptible to many infectious agents including human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), we investigated the potential of HHV-6 to influence the replication of KSHV. By co-culturing HHV-6-infected T cells with KSHV-latent BCBL-1 cell line, infecting BCBL-1 cells with HHV-6 virions, and generating heterokaryons between HHV-6-infected T cells and BCBL-1 cells, we showed that HHV-6 played a critical role in induction of KSHV replication, as determined by production of lytic phase mRNA transcripts and viral proteins. We confirmed and extended the results by using a luciferase reporter assay in which KSHV ORF50 promoter, the first promoter activated during KSHV replication, drove the luciferase expression. Besides HHV-6, we also found that cytokines such as interferon-{gamma} partially contributed to induction of KSHV replication in the co-culture system. These findings suggest that HHV-6 may participate in KS pathogenesis by promoting KSHV replication and increasing KSHV viral load.
American Journal of Pathology. 2005;166:173-183.

According to the study below, "Human herpesvirus-6 and CMV may be cofactors but not the only causative agents for the development of AIDS-associated KS."

Human herpesvirus type 6 and cytomegalovirus in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: no evidence for an etiological association.

Kempf W, Adams V, Pfaltz M, Briner J, Schmid M, Moos R, Hassam S.
Department of Pathology, University of Zürich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies indicate that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) may be caused by an infectious, preferentially sexually transmitted agent. Herpesviruses infections are common sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual men, who are also the main risk group for developing Kaposi's sarcoma. To evaluate a possible role of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the development of AIDS-associated KS, we investigated cutaneous AIDS-associated KS in 26 AIDS patients using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the presence of HHV-6 and CMV. Human herpesvirus-6 was detected in nine of 26 Kaposi's sarcoma specimens (all cases were HHV-6 subtype B) and in eight of 27 normal skin specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive and HIV seronegative patients (one case was HHV-6 subtype A and seven cases were HHV-6 subtype B). In two of four patients showing HHV-6 in KS of the skin, the virus also was detected in other investigated tissues, such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, and adrenals. Cytomegalovirus was detected only in AIDS-associated KS (seven of 26 KS specimens) and not in normal skin tissues of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. Cytomegalovirus was detected in other organs of those patients showing CMV in Kaposi's sarcoma. Our data indicate that the presence of HHV-6 and CMV in AIDS-associated KS most likely reflects disseminated viral infection. Human herpesvirus-6 and CMV may be cofactors but not the only causative agents for the development of AIDS-associated KS.
Hum Pathol. 1995 Aug;26(8):914-9.


If HHV-6 is the real cause of AIDS, here are some of the implications:

1. HIV is a massive scientific fraud. Something akin to a Ponzi scheme. Scientists who challenged the HIV theory of AIDS (the ones who have been thuggishly censored and silenced) turn out to be on the money.

2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Autism (and many other so-called HHV-6 related mysterious epidemics) are part of the so-called AIDS epidemic.  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Autism both are clearly the results of the ravages of HHV-6.

3. AIDS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has been artificially and politically separated into two epidemics. We are living in a period of CFS/AIDS apartheid. So-called AIDS patients have to sit in the back of the HHV-6 epidemic bus while the befuddled HHV-6/CFS patients and HHV-6/Autism victims sit up front. Nobody is well-served.

4. AIDS is not a sexually transmitted disease. That paradigm has set a scapegoating and antigay agenda in place that the public thinks is solidly based on science. It is only based on homophobic and racist nosology, epidemiology and virology. The scientists behind the paradigm are charlatans and crooks.

5. The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and the Pasteur Institute in Paris have a great deal in common with the institutions of Nazi medicine. For Blacks, everything these institutions have done in the name of AIDS really constitutes a second Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.

Elements of a Scientific Ponzi Scheme like the Montagnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up

A scientific Ponzi scheme begins with a central seminal or foundational scientific fraud and is  sometimes built on an infrastructure of smaller scientific frauds. Like the fake dividends issued in a strictly financial Ponzi scheme, a scientific Ponzi scheme issues fake dividends in the form of ongoing fraud-based research often framed as "breakthroughs" and bogus extrapolations which make it look like everything is above board and that what, in reality, is scientific fraud, appears to the rest of the scientific community and the public as good faith progress.

A classic scientific Ponzi scheme like the Montgnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up include elements like these:

1. Nosological fraud.

2. Epidemiological fraud.

3. Virological fraud.

4. Treatment fraud.

5. Public health policy fraud.

6. Concealment of negative scientific data and paradigm-challenging anomalies.

7.  Use of an elite network of "old boys" and pseudo-activist provocateurs to censor critics and whistleblowers.

8. Chronic obscurantism.

9. If necessary, vigilantism and witch-hunts against any intellectuals, scientists, or citizens who constitute any form of resistance to the Ponzi scheme.

10. A subservient scientific press that is used as a conveyor belt for the Ponzi scheme's propaganda.

Everything always looks like it is working perfectly in a Ponzi scheme, until the moment comes when someone look at the books and blows the whistle.  Hopefully, that game-changing moment for the Montagnier-Agut HIV Fraud Ponzi Scheme and HHV-6 Cover-up is coming soon.


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