"Herpesviruses are highly adapted to lifelong infection of their human
hosts and thus can be considered a component of the human "microbiome"
in addition to their role in illness triggered by primary infection."
"Chest pain, several types of arrhythmias, heart murmurs, and tachycardias (an abnormally rapid beating of the heart) occur in Cheney's [chronic fatigue syndrome] patients. He has a few patients with 'focal myocarditis,' and inflammation of a section of hear muscle." -- Neenyah Ostrom, New York Native, January 2, 1989
The New York Native 1980-1997
A 20th Century Newspaper of Firsts
1. First newspaper to break the story of AIDS.
2. First newspaper to make AIDS its signature story.
First newspaper the Centers for Disease Control leaked news of the
discovery of what the institution thought was the "cause of AIDS.
4. First newspaper to do an in-depth interview with Robert Gallo.
The first newspaper to raise questions on a regular basis about Robert
Gallo's so-called "discovery," and to provide thorough coverage of the
The first newspaper to cover the scientists who found holes in the HIV
theory of AIDS and who dared to criticize the powerful AIDS
7. The first newspaper to publish investigative reporting on AZT.
8. The first newspaper to provide regular coverage of HHV-6, the "other AIDS virus."
9. The first newspaper to have a full time reporter covering the chronic fatigue syndrome epidemic.
10. The first newspaper to do investigative reporting on the intertwined nature of AIDS and chronic fatigue syndrome.
"African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most
important viral diseases of domestic pigs for which no vaccine is
available, causes immune system disorders in infected animals. In this
study, the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the
histological and cellular constitution of lymphoid organs of pigs
infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated. The results showed a
high degree of lymphocyte depletion in the lymphoid organs, particularly
in the spleen and lymph nodes, where ASFV infection led to a twofold
decrease in the number of lymphocytes on the final day of infection.
Additionally, ASFV-infected pigs had atypical forms of lymphocytes found
in all lymphoid organs. In contrast to lymphocytes, the number of
immature immune cells, particularly myelocytes, increased dramatically
and reached a maximum on day 7 postinfection. The serum levels of TNF-α,
IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were evaluated. Proinflammatory cytokines showed
increased levels after ASFV infection, with peak values at 7 days
postinfection, and this highlights their role in the pathogenesis of
ASFV. In conclusion, this study showed that ASFV genotype II, like other
highly virulent strains, causes severe pathological changes in the
immune system of pigs."
Russian Scientist: ASF could become a human health risk
"The African swine fever (ASF) virus, may in the future become
dangerous for humans, according to the head of the Russian Epidemiology
Service, Chief State Sanitary Doctor Gennady Onishchenko, at the
press-conference in St. Petersburg. According to him almost all viruses
from time to time go through mutation processes which can give them some
Background on African Swine Fever Virus as a human pathogen:
"African Swine fever is an endemic disease in sub-Saharan Africa and
many other parts of the developing world. It is caused by the African
Swine virus that primarily replicates in macrophages and monocytes
leading to the impairment of the structure and function of the immune
system of the infected organisms. Until now the African Swine epidemic
continues to spread despite all efforts to contain it. Thus, there is
an objective need for effective, safe and affordable preventive and
therapeutic approaches, in particular for effective vaccines, to
control and eventually eradicate this disease. Since the characteristic
feature of the African Swine virus is to impair the immune system and
to cause immune deficiencies in its hosts the development of vaccines
and other therapeutic approaches against the African Swine virus has
implications for other immune deficiencies or diseases. Several other
viruses are also known to cause immunodeficiency-like syndromes in
humans, including cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr Virus
and others. Moreover, a series of cases of so-called "idiopathic"
immunodeficiencies have been documented that display
CD4+T-lymphocytopenia with opportunistic infections, but show no
evidence of HIV infection. Since antibodies for the African Swine virus
have been detected in humans, the possibility of human infection with
the African Swine virus exists and may thus far have escaped any systematic screening. Thus, any preventive and therapeutic approach to African Swine fever can have far-reaching implications to control immune deficiency conditions in humans."http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080207875 Detection of Novel Sequences Related to African Swine Fever Virus in Human Serum and Sewage.
Departments of Pathology & Immunology and Molecular Microbiology,
Department of Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, Washington
University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of
Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology,
University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
"The family Asfarviridae contains only a single virus species, African
swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV is a viral agent with significant
economic impact due to its devastating effects on populations of
domesticated pigs during outbreaks, but has not been reported to infect
humans. We report here the discovery of novel viral sequences in human
serum and sewage which are clearly related to the Asfarvirus family,
but highly divergent from ASFV. Detection of these sequences suggests
that greater genetic diversity may exist among Asfarviruses than
previously thought, and raises the possibility that human infection by
Asfarviruses may occur."
African Swine Fever Virus (Asfarviridae) sequences found in people with febrile illnesses
Virus Identification in Unknown Tropical Febrile Illness Cases Using Deep Sequencing
Dengue virus is an emerging infectious agent that infects an estimated
50–100 million people annually worldwide, yet current diagnostic
practices cannot detect an etiologic pathogen in ∼40% of dengue-like
illnesses. Metagenomic approaches to pathogen detection, such as viral
microarrays and deep sequencing, are promising tools to address
emerging and non-diagnosable disease challenges. In this study, we
used the Virochip microarray and deep sequencing to characterize the
spectrum of viruses present in human sera from 123 Nicaraguan patients
presenting with dengue-like symptoms but testing negative for dengue
virus. We utilized a barcoding strategy to simultaneously deep
sequence multiple serum specimens, generating on average over 1
million reads per sample. We then implemented a stepwise bioinformatic
filtering pipeline to remove the majority of human and low-quality
sequences to improve the speed and accuracy of subsequent unbiased
database searches. By deep sequencing, we were able to detect virus
sequence in 37% (45/123) of previously negative cases. These included
13 cases with Human Herpesvirus 6 sequences. Other samples contained
sequences with similarity to sequences from viruses in the Herpesviridae, Flaviviridae, Circoviridae, Anelloviridae, Asfarviridae, and Parvoviridae
families. In some cases, the putative viral sequences were virtually
identical to known viruses, and in others they diverged, suggesting
that they may derive from novel viruses. These results demonstrate the
utility of unbiased metagenomic approaches in the detection of known
and divergent viruses in the study of tropical febrile illness.