An excerpt from THE CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME EPIDEMIC COVER-UP

CFS Book top ad

Kindle free trial

Monday, December 01, 2014

World AIDS Day

cartoon, AIDS, CFS,

HHV-6 and oligodendrocyte cell death.


Human herpesvirus type 6 indirectly enhances oligodendrocyte cell death.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13129768

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) plays a pathogenic role in diseases of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have indicated that HHV-6 DNA is detected with high frequency in MS lesions compared to normal-appearing white matter, implicating a role for HHV-6 in MS pathogenesis. It appears that T cells, which infiltrate into the brain in MS patients, and resident oligodendrocytes harbor HHV-6 virus in MS lesions. Because T cells infected with HHV-6 have elevated proinflammatory gene expression, we hypothesized that HHV-6 could be indirectly cytotoxic to glial cells, including oligodendrocytes. Supernatants from SupT1 cells infected with HHV-6 variant A (GS or U1102) or variant B (Z29) significantly reduced MO3.1 cell proliferation by 75% +/- 10%, 78% +/- 8% or 51% +/- 9%, respectively. HHV-6 viral supernatants (GS or U1102 or Z29) significantly increased MO3.1 or primary human oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) cell death, whereas primary human fetal astrocytes were not affected. Removal of HHV-6 virions or proteins by trypsin treatment from culture supernatants did not reverse the loss in oligodendrocyte proliferation or viability. Supernatants from HHV-6 GS or U1102 cultures were significantly more cytotoxic to MO3.1 cells or OPCs compared to supernatants from T cells infected with Z29. Dying oligodendrocytes did not have an apoptotic-like phenotype and toxicity was not inhibited by general inhibitor of apoptosis, ZVAD. Further, oligodendrocytes had minimal caspase-3 activation even in the presence of staurosporine, suggesting that cell death followed caspase-independent pathways. These results indicate that HHV-6 is indirectly cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes and that cell death is driven primarily by caspase-independent pathways.

The effect of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) on cultured human neural cells: oligodendrocytes and microglia.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9839646

Abstract

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a betaherpesvirus that has been frequently associated with pediatric encephalitis. In 1995 Challoner et al reported that HHV-6 variant B (HHV-6B) was linked to multiple sclerosis (MS) due to the presence of viral DNA and antigen in the oligodendrocytes surrounding MS plaques. These findings led us to examine HHV-6B's in vitro tropism for primary neural cells. HIV-6B mediated cell-to-cell fusion in cultured adult oligodendroglia. Infection of oligodendrocytes was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (EM), which showed the presence of intracellular HHV-6 particles, and by PCR for HHV-6 DNA. However, the release of infectious virus was low or undetectable in multiple experiments. Microglia were also susceptible to infection by HHV-6B, as demonstrated by an antigen capture assay. We did not detect infection of a differentiated neuronal cell line (NT2D). Our findings suggest that HHV-6B infection of oligodendrocytes and/or microglia could potentially play a role in neuropathogenesis.


Infection of murine oligodendroglial precursor cells with Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)--establishment of a murine in vitro model.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276361

CONCLUSIONS:

Infection of murine OPCs by HHV-6 reproduces the critical phenotypes of cell cycle arrest and altered differentiation seen in human cells. The murine system provides a highly defined, accessible, and reproducible source of cells permitting the elucidation of specific viral and cell cycle genes involved in CNS viral infections of OPCs.

 Background on Oligodendrocytes:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligodendrocyte

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Chronic Fatigue Syndromes: Issues in Clinical Care

http://figshare.com/articles/Mitochondrial_Dysfunction_and_Chronic_Fatigue_Syndromes_Issues_in_Clinical_Care_modified_version_/1254859

New HHV-6 cartoon

cartoon, aids, ms, cfs, chronic fatigue syndrome, cancer, gallo, ablashi
Julian Lake's CFS cartoon book on Kindle (free on Kindle Unlimited).

Dharam Ablashi on HHV-6 and AIDS

HHV-6 infection in HIV-infected asymptomatic and AIDS patients.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9705559

Abstract

In order to investigate the levels of HHV-6 infection and elevated antibodies to HHV-6 in HIV-1-infected asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were (PBMC) cultured. As patients progressed from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS, there was a concurrent increase in replicating HHV-6. Plasma obtained from several of these patients showed the presence of IgM antibody and a significantly elevated level of HHV-6 IgG antibody. Serial samples of plasma from 10 AIDS patients collected over a period of 4 years were assayed for the detection of HHV-6 core protein (gp116/64/54) by antigen capture ELISA. The results demonstrated that either a persistent infection or reactivation can occur based on the degree of fluctuation in HHV-6 antigen detected. ELISA to HHV-6 purified viral proteins, i.e., early (p41/38) and late (gp110), demonstrated that IgG antibody to gp110 did not differentiate between HIV-1-infected and healthy donors. IgG and IgM antibody to p41/38, however, showed a significantly higher prevalence in HIV-1-infected individuals (56.7-85.3%) than in normal healthy donors (19.0%), suggesting virus activation. PBMC culture from the AIDS patients expressing significant peaks of HHV-6 core antigen (gp116/64/54) in their plasma showed that in most cases, HHV-6 early and late antigens were detectable; however, those patients with consistently low antigen peaks had no detectable antigens in their PBMC. Only 55% of PBMC cultures established from IgM antibody-positive HIV-1-infected asymptomatic and AIDS patients expressed HHV-6 antigens in the short-term cultures, but HHV-6 antigens could not be demonstrated in PBMC culture from 4 IgM-antibody-positive healthy donors. HHV-6 isolates obtained from the HIV-1-positive patients were predominantly HHV-6 variant A, compared to healthy donors. Based on the data presented here, it is evident that the levels of HHV-6 infection increased in HIV-1-infected asymptomatic individuals as they progressed to AIDS. Our immunovirological data on HHV-6-infected individuals with HIV infection support a role for HHV-6 in the pathogenesis of AIDS. We believe that simultaneous active infection with HIV-1 and HHV-6 may contribute to enhanced immune suppression perhaps leading to disease manifestations.

oct 19 ad

Individual chapters

Want to check out individual chapters of our best seller? Click books below for previews of each individual chapter of THE CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME EPIDEMIC COVER-UP available for only $2.99 on KINDLE or free on KINDLE Unlimited.

Popular Posts in the Last 30 Days

Blog Archive

You can support us by listening to these songs by Charles Ortleb on Spotify.

A description of the chapters in THE CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME EPIDEMIC COVER-UP

Previous HHV-6 University Reports

Audible CFS book

Closing Argument Audible

African Swine Fever Novel Audible

Stonewall Audible