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Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Laurie Krug on Roseoloviruses like HHV-6

"Roseolovirus cytopathic effect is striking. Anyone who has witnessed the ballooning, refractile cells upon infection will wonder at the power of these viruses to cause such fundamental change in target cells."

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Roseoloviruses (like HHV-6) manipulate host cell cycle

"Finally, the infection of HHV-6 leads to fusion of infected cells and formation of syncytia with ballooning shape, causing significant alterations in cell morphology and function."

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HHV-6 Animal Model: Monkeys or Pigs?


Discovery and biological characterization of two novel pig-tailed macaque homologs of HHV-6 and HHV-7.

Or Pigs?

What is the relationship between Porcine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus and HHV-6?

"PLHV-1 and -2 are highly homologous to each other but not to PLHV-3. The two viruses are widespread in domestic pigs and are closely related to several ruminant gammaherpesviruses, most of which are etiologically implicated in the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a lymphoproliferative inflammatory disease with an often fatal outcome. PLHV-1 and -2 are also related to Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Herpesvirus-8 and other gammaherpesviruses." 
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Pig to Human Porcine CMV Transmission: What about HHV-6 transmission between people and pigs?
"Given the high frequency of seropositivity of swine
for PCMV and the efficiency of transmission of HCMV
from donor to transplant recipient (6), PCMV may
represent another potential risk to humans."
From "Quantitation of Porcine Cytomegalovirus in Pig
Tissues by PCR" by Jacqueline F. L. Fryer, Paul D.
Griffiths, Jay A. Fishman, Vincent C. Emery, and
Duncan A. Clark published in Journal of Clinical
Microbiology, March 2001, p. 1155-1156, Vol. 39, No. 3

It is interesting to see pigs and HHV-6 mentioned in
the same paper which ends this way
: "In conclusion,
this report describes the development and application
of a QC-PCR assay for the quantification of PCMV,
similar to assays currently used in our laboratory for
the quantification of human herpesviruses including
HHV-6, HHV-7, and HCMV (2, 7, 9). This assay will be
useful in further studying the pathogenesis of PCMV
and will enable the detection and accurate
quantification of PCMV in porcine organs in pigs being
bred for use in xenotransplantation."
How much does PCMV have in common with HHV-6?
Check this out

Infection of porcine cells with human herpesviruses.


Porcine organs are valuable candidate materials for xenotransplantation to humans. Long-term maintenance of well functioning transplants is a prerequisite for success. Transplanted organs may be damaged by immune reactions or by infectious agents in hosts. Human herpesviruses (HHVs) establish life-long latency in humans after a primary infection. They can be reactivated with various stimuli, including immunosuppression. This study was performed to verify the infectivity of some HHVs toward porcine cells. PK-15 cells infected with HHV-1 and HHV-2 showed cytopathology from 1 day after infection. Immunofluorescent (IF) staining of HHV-1- and HHV-2-infected PK-15 cells with respective antibodies demonstrated the expression of the respective viral antigens. Permissiveness of PK-15 to HHV-1 and -2 was confirmed by an infection test on Vero cells. Islet cells infected with HHV-5 showed no gross morphologic changes during the experimental course. A limited portion of islet cells reacted only to anti-IE1 and anti-IE2, but not to anti-UL44 or anti-gB antibody by IF staining, whereas a small portion of endothelial cells reacted to anti-IEs and anti-UL44, but not to anti-gB antibody. HHV-1 and -2 can permissively infect porcine cells, but HHV-5 infects a small proportion of cells with limited viral protein expression. HHV-4 could not transform peripheral blood mononuclear cells from miniature pigs. Collectively, because some HHVs can infect and damage porcine cells or impair their functions, HHVs should be cautiously monitored and controlled in humans when porcine cells or organs are transplanted to human beings.
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Detection of human herpesvirus 6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children with possible encephalitis.

"CONCLUSIONS: According to this research and prevalence of HHV-6 in children, evaluation of CSF (detecting the HHV-6 DNA by PCR) is recommended in patients younger than 13 months with possible encephalitis."

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