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Sunday, April 12, 2015

Pigs, Kaposi's Sarcoma and African Swine Fever: Is HHV-8 the human infection of ASFV in Sardinia?

Special alert to Russian and European scientists:

High prevalence of antibodies to human herpesvirus 8 in relatives of patients with classic Kaposi's sarcoma from Sardinia.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9607855


Infection with human herpesvirus type 8 and Kaposi's sarcoma in Sardinia.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16501902

 

 Epidemiology of HHV8 in Sardinian emigrants

 http://www.dsnm.univr.it/?ent=progetto&id=565

 Both ASFV and HHV-8 Interfere with apoptosis.

Are ASFV-infected Pigs the viral source of HHV-8 related Kaposi's Sarcoma in Sardinia? Is a ASFV-related Kaposi's Sarcoma epidemic possible in Russia where ASFV is spreading?

 https://hhv6.jottit.com/35._pigs_and_kaposi%27s_sarcoma_in_sardinia

The world's highest incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma occurs in Sardinia (Reference) Is it possible that it is due to the fact that African Swine Fever Virus is endemic on the island? (Reference) One study suggests that the incidence of K.S. in northern Sardinia is highest in a countryside area where people have contact with animals. (Reference) Given the high prevalence of HHV-8,--the so-called K.S. herpes virus--in Sardinia (Reference) is it at all possible that HHV-8 may have been misclassified and actually is a human-adapted form of African Swine Fever Virus? (ASFV has been at least visually mistaken for another herpes virus, CMV, in the past.)

A number of experiments could be conducted to explore this hypothesis. In addition to a direct comparison of ASFV and HHV-8, pigs with African Swine Fever Virus could be tested for sequences of HHV-8. People with Kaposi's sarcoma could be tested for sequences of African Swine Fever, including new Asfaviridae sequences recently discovered. (Reference) 

A comparison of the K.S. lesions in humans and ASFV lesions in pigs might be in order.Given that African Swine Fever is currently spreading in Russia and is now threatening Europe and China, (Reference) it would be useful to know whether people who are exposed to pigs with ASFV are at increased risk for HHV-8, Kaposi's sarcoma and the other pathologies associated with HHV-8. A study in sub-Saharan Africa where ASFV is endemic and HHV-8 is also endemic (Reference) might be useful. And areas of Russia where ASFV is spreading could be monitored closely for any signs of an increase of K.S. or HHV-8 infection and HHV-8 related pathologies.HHV-8 is an emerging health problem. HHV-8-associated K.S. is a significant problem in AIDS patients. It may also be the key to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. HHV-8 has been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of 50% of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients. (Reference) HHV-8 has been linked to type 2 diabetes. (Reference) HHV-8 has been detected in B-cells in Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma. (Reference).

If HHV-8 is a form of ASFV, it is possible that pigs might constitute a useful animal model for the study of possible treatments for K.S. and other pathologies associated with HHV-8. And if there is any relationship between ASFV and HHV-8, people may have to be warned to take special precautions around pigs in areas where there are ASFV outbreaks. And countries where undercooked pork is consumed (like Ukraine where salo is a staple) may need to alert the public to cook all pork products thoroughly during ASFV epidemics.

 

A number of years ago, Neenyah Ostrom reported in the New
York Native on the lesions in CFS patients which seem
to resemble Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS). The current
thinking is that a virus called HHV-8 is the cause of
KS. (Although HHV-6 has recently also been implicated
once again.) If KS is a problem in CFS (and we
suspect it is) then one should be able to find HHV-8 and
HHV-6 in CFS patients. Apparently, in this small
study, one can. Below is a rather explosive abstract:
Prevalence in the cerebrospinal fluid of the following
infectious agents in a cohort of 12 CFS subjects:
human herpes virus-6 and 8; chlamydia species;
mycoplasma species; EBV; CMV; and Coxsackievirus.
Levine, S.
Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 2001, 9, 1/2,
41-51.
Abstract:
Over the last decade a wide variety of infectious
agents have been associated with the CFS as potential
etiologies for this disorder. Many of these agents are
neurotrophic and have been linked previously to other
diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS).
Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), especially the B
variant, has been found in autopsy specimens of
patients who suffered from MS. Because patients with
CFS manifest a wide range of symptoms involving the
CNS as shown by abnormalities on brain MRIs, SPECT
scans of the brain and results of tilt table testing
we sought to determine the prevalence of HHV-6, HHV-8,
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV),
mycoplasma species, chlamydia species, and Coxsackie
virus in the spinal fluid of a group of 12 patients
with CFS (CDC criteria '94).
We found evidence of HHV-6, HHV-8, chlamydia species,
CMV and Coxsackie virus in 6/12 samples. Plasma tests
were negative. It was surprising to obtain such a
relatively high yield of infectious agents in cell
free specimens of spinal fluid that had not been
centrifuged. Future research in spinal fluid analysis,
in addition to testing tissue samples by polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) and other direct viral isolation
techniques will be important in characterizing
subpopulations of CFS patients, especially those with
involvement of the CNS.
The low rate of isolation of HHV-6 may be related to
the lack of gross neurological findings in the
patients at the time of testing.
An overview of KS:http://www.thebody.com/nmai/ks.html
Except for those who have made a lifelong commitment
to denial, finding the so-called "KS virus" (HHV-8)
and the "supporting KS virus" (HHV-6) in CFIDS patients
should help settle the question of the overlapping
nature of the AIDS and CFIDS epidemics.
Isn't it time to take a closer look at those crimson
crescents in the throats of CFIDS patients?
More info on KS here.

Given that HHV-8 is part of the HHV-6 and HHV-7 family, this may be very important:

"The 19R Protein of HHV-6 has significant amino acid sequence homology . . . to a protein encoded by African Swine Fever Virus."

--Glenda L. Lawrence, John Nicholas and Bart G. Barrell
Journal of General virology (1995), 76, 147-152

 Click here for more information on this issue.

  animal model, asfv, cdc, HHV-6, hhv-7, HHV-8, pigs, PLHV, porcine herpesvirus, swine

 

 


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