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Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Do bizarre blood issues in COVID-19 raise the possibility that China was never honest about the involvement of African Swine Fever in COVID-19?

We still don't know if pigs in Wuhan and Hubei have been tested for COVID-19. If they are positive for that virus, is it possible That they also transmitted African Swine Fever to COVID-19 patients?

Is mysterious blood-clotting problem reported on by the Washington Post actually caused by 
African Swine Fever virus? Is it a coinfection of COVID-19?

1984 Nov;45(11):2414-20.

Coagulation changes in African swine fever virus infection.


Pigs were infected with highly virulent (Tengani '62), with moderately virulent (DR '79) African swine fever (ASF) virus, or with virulent hog cholera (HC) virus. Changes in platelet counts, selected coagulation assays and concentrations of factor VIII-related antigen (VIIIR:Ag) were monitored. Permeability of aortic endothelium was studied after the injection of Evan's blue dye on various days after infection with DR '79 ASF virus. Virulent ASF virus caused prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), 1-stage prothrombin time, and thrombin clotting time as early as postinoculation day (PID) 4. These changes became progressively more severe until death. Both virulent HC and DR'79 viruses induced an increase APPT and thrombin clotting time at PID 3 to 4, only occasionally did the prothrombin time increased significantly (P less than 0.01). The APPT began to decrease on PID 7 and 8, but only DR'79-infected pigs lived long enough to regain a normal APTT. Infection by ASF viruses caused acute thrombocytopenia after PID 6 and platelet counts of HC virus-infected pigs decreased progressively from the onset of fever to levels of 1 to 2 X 10(5)/mm3 at PID 6 to 7. All ASF virus-infected pigs had an increase in VIIIR:Ag beginning at PID 3, with maximum increases at PID 6 to 7. Hog cholera virus infection did not cause consistent changes in levels of VIIIR:Ag. Pigs infected with DR'79 virus did not have increased vascular permeability to Evan's blue dye during infection; however, there was markedly decreased staining of the aorta after pigs became thrombocytopenic.

African Swine Fever Virus Infection of Porcine Aortic Endothelial Cells Leads to Inhibition of Inflammatory Responses, Activation of the Thrombotic State, and Apoptosis


African swine fever (ASF) is an asymptomatic infection of warthogs and bushpigs, which has become an emergent disease of domestic pigs, characterized by hemorrhage, lymphopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. It is caused by a large icosohedral double-stranded DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), with infection of macrophages well characterized in vitro and in vivo. This study shows that virulent isolates of ASFV also infect primary cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cells and bushpig endothelial cells (BPECs) in vitro. Kinetics of early and late gene expression, viral factory formation, replication, and secretion were similar in endothelial cells and macrophages. However, ASFV-infected endothelial cells died by apoptosis, detected morphologically by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and nuclear condensation and biochemically by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage at 4 h postinfection (hpi). Immediate-early proinflammatory responses were inhibited, characterized by a lack of E-selectin surface expression and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 mRNA synthesis. Moreover, ASFV actively downregulated interferon-induced major histocompatibility complex class I surface expression, a strategy by which viruses evade the immune system. Significantly, Western blot analysis showed that the 65-kDa subunit of the transcription factor NF-κB, a central regulator of the early response to viral infection, decreased by 8 hpi and disappeared by 18 hpi. Both disappearance of NF-κB p65 and cleavage of PARP were reversed by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Interestingly, surface expression and mRNA transcription of tissue factor, an important initiator of the coagulation cascade, increased 4 h after ASFV infection. These data suggest a central role for vascular endothelial cells in the hemorrhagic pathogenesis of the disease. Since BPECs infected with ASFV also undergo apoptosis, resistance of the natural host must involve complex pathological factors other than viral tropism.

Haemostatic abnormalities in African swine fever/A comparison of two virus strains of different virulence (Dominican Republic '78 and Malta '78)


African swine fever (ASF) virus strains cause haemorrhage by producing a variety of defects, which vary in severity from strain to strain. To distinguish the main haemostatic defects leading to haemorrhage, two groups of pigs were infected with moderately virulent (Dominican Republic '78) and less virulent (Malta '78) ASF virus strains. Mortality rate and severity of clinical observations were greater in pigs infected with DR '78 virus compared with pigs infected with Malta '78 virus. The animals became febrile from day 3 to 4 onwards at a time when the viraemia was high (107 to 108 HAD50/ml). No difference was found during the period observed in their pattern of viraemia or pyrexia. Thrombocytopenia developed in both groups but with different kinetics, suggesting two different mechanisms of sequestration of platelets. When coagulation tests were performed, significant abnormalities were found, including evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation. These abnormalities were much less pronounced in the group infected with Malta '78. Antithrombin III activity did not change significantly in either group. Decreased plasminogen activity was found in the early phase of disease in DR '78 infected pigs. These results indicate that when haemorrhage does occur in DR '78 infected pigs, it is a consequence of more pronounced degrees of haemostatic impairment probably due to a marked endothelial injury and/or generation of procoagulant activity.

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