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Thursday, April 23, 2020

New Bhupesh Prusty research on HHV-6 in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is a game changer.





Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation, Mitochondrial Fragmentation, and the Coordination of Antiviral and Metabolic Phenotypes in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome




Philipp Schreiner, Thomas Harrer, Carmen Scheibenbogen, Stephanie Lamer, Andreas Schlosser, Robert K. Naviaux and Bhupesh K. Prusty



Abstract

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a multifactorial disorder with many possible triggers. Human herpesvirus (HHV)–6 and HHV-7 are two infectious triggers for which evidence has been growing. To understand possible causative role of HHV-6 in ME/CFS, metabolic and antiviral phenotypes of U2-OS cells were studied with and without chromosomally integrated HHV-6 and with or without virus reactivation using the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin-A. Proteomic analysis was conducted by pulsed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture analysis. Antiviral properties that were induced by HHV-6 transactivation were studied in virus-naive A549 cells challenged by infection with influenza-A (H1N1) or HSV-1. Mitochondria were fragmented and 1-carbon metabolism, dUTPase, and thymidylate synthase were strongly induced by HHV-6 reactivation, whereas superoxide dismutase 2 and proteins required for mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acid, amino acid, and glucose metabolism, including pyruvate dehydrogenase, were strongly inhibited. Adoptive transfer of U2-OS cell supernatants after reactivation of HHV-6A led to an antiviral state in A549 cells that prevented superinfection with influenza-A and HSV-1. Adoptive transfer of serum from 10 patients with ME/CFS produced a similar fragmentation of mitochondria and the associated antiviral state in the A549 cell assay. In conclusion, HHV-6 reactivation in ME/CFS patients activates a multisystem, proinflammatory, cell danger response that protects against certain RNA and DNA virus infections but comes at the cost of mitochondrial fragmentation and severely compromised energy metabolism.

https://www.immunohorizons.org/content/4/4/201
From 1988-1997, a newspaper called New York Native warned the world about HHV-6. The AIDS activists and HIV establishment tried to silence them, but they continued to publish uncompromising information about HHV-6 and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome that the CDC, Fauci, and NIH didn't want the public to know about. Now read the whole story about New York Native and the cover-up of HHV-6 epidemic that includes AIDS, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, autism, and many other immunological illnesses.

Should COVID-19 patients be tested for African Swine Fever?

We still don't know if pigs in Wuhan and Hubei have been tested for COVID-19. If they are positive for that virus, is it possible that they also transmitted African Swine Fever to COVID-19 patients?



Is mysterious blood-clotting problem reported on by the Washington Post actually caused by 
African Swine Fever virus? Is it a coinfection of COVID-19?

https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/04/22/coronavirus-blood-clots/

1984 Nov;45(11):2414-20.

Coagulation changes in African swine fever virus infection.

Abstract

Pigs were infected with highly virulent (Tengani '62), with moderately virulent (DR '79) African swine fever (ASF) virus, or with virulent hog cholera (HC) virus. Changes in platelet counts, selected coagulation assays and concentrations of factor VIII-related antigen (VIIIR:Ag) were monitored. Permeability of aortic endothelium was studied after the injection of Evan's blue dye on various days after infection with DR '79 ASF virus. Virulent ASF virus caused prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), 1-stage prothrombin time, and thrombin clotting time as early as postinoculation day (PID) 4. These changes became progressively more severe until death. Both virulent HC and DR'79 viruses induced an increase APPT and thrombin clotting time at PID 3 to 4, only occasionally did the prothrombin time increased significantly (P less than 0.01). The APPT began to decrease on PID 7 and 8, but only DR'79-infected pigs lived long enough to regain a normal APTT. Infection by ASF viruses caused acute thrombocytopenia after PID 6 and platelet counts of HC virus-infected pigs decreased progressively from the onset of fever to levels of 1 to 2 X 10(5)/mm3 at PID 6 to 7. All ASF virus-infected pigs had an increase in VIIIR:Ag beginning at PID 3, with maximum increases at PID 6 to 7. Hog cholera virus infection did not cause consistent changes in levels of VIIIR:Ag. Pigs infected with DR'79 virus did not have increased vascular permeability to Evan's blue dye during infection; however, there was markedly decreased staining of the aorta after pigs became thrombocytopenic.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6441489

African Swine Fever Virus Infection of Porcine Aortic Endothelial Cells Leads to Inhibition of Inflammatory Responses, Activation of the Thrombotic State, and Apoptosis

ABSTRACT

African swine fever (ASF) is an asymptomatic infection of warthogs and bushpigs, which has become an emergent disease of domestic pigs, characterized by hemorrhage, lymphopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. It is caused by a large icosohedral double-stranded DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), with infection of macrophages well characterized in vitro and in vivo. This study shows that virulent isolates of ASFV also infect primary cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cells and bushpig endothelial cells (BPECs) in vitro. Kinetics of early and late gene expression, viral factory formation, replication, and secretion were similar in endothelial cells and macrophages. However, ASFV-infected endothelial cells died by apoptosis, detected morphologically by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and nuclear condensation and biochemically by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage at 4 h postinfection (hpi). Immediate-early proinflammatory responses were inhibited, characterized by a lack of E-selectin surface expression and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 mRNA synthesis. Moreover, ASFV actively downregulated interferon-induced major histocompatibility complex class I surface expression, a strategy by which viruses evade the immune system. Significantly, Western blot analysis showed that the 65-kDa subunit of the transcription factor NF-κB, a central regulator of the early response to viral infection, decreased by 8 hpi and disappeared by 18 hpi. Both disappearance of NF-κB p65 and cleavage of PARP were reversed by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Interestingly, surface expression and mRNA transcription of tissue factor, an important initiator of the coagulation cascade, increased 4 h after ASFV infection. These data suggest a central role for vascular endothelial cells in the hemorrhagic pathogenesis of the disease. Since BPECs infected with ASFV also undergo apoptosis, resistance of the natural host must involve complex pathological factors other than viral tropism.

https://jvi.asm.org/content/75/21/10372



Haemostatic abnormalities in African swine fever/A comparison of two virus strains of different virulence (Dominican Republic '78 and Malta '78)





Summary

African swine fever (ASF) virus strains cause haemorrhage by producing a variety of defects, which vary in severity from strain to strain. To distinguish the main haemostatic defects leading to haemorrhage, two groups of pigs were infected with moderately virulent (Dominican Republic '78) and less virulent (Malta '78) ASF virus strains. Mortality rate and severity of clinical observations were greater in pigs infected with DR '78 virus compared with pigs infected with Malta '78 virus. The animals became febrile from day 3 to 4 onwards at a time when the viraemia was high (107 to 108 HAD50/ml). No difference was found during the period observed in their pattern of viraemia or pyrexia. Thrombocytopenia developed in both groups but with different kinetics, suggesting two different mechanisms of sequestration of platelets. When coagulation tests were performed, significant abnormalities were found, including evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation. These abnormalities were much less pronounced in the group infected with Malta '78. Antithrombin III activity did not change significantly in either group. Decreased plasminogen activity was found in the early phase of disease in DR '78 infected pigs. These results indicate that when haemorrhage does occur in DR '78 infected pigs, it is a consequence of more pronounced degrees of haemostatic impairment probably due to a marked endothelial injury and/or generation of procoagulant activity.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01318997

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