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Monday, November 10, 2014

Porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses 1 and 2

PLHV-1 and -2 are highly homologous to each other but not to PLHV-3. The two viruses are widespread in domestic pigs and are closely related to several ruminant gammaherpesviruses, most of which are etiologically implicated in the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a lymphoproliferative inflammatory disease with an often fatal outcome. PLHV-1 and -2 are also related to Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Herpesvirus-8 and other gammaherpesviruses.

Porcine CMV is a betaherpesvirus, and suggested that it is most closely related to HHV-6 and HHV-7.

 Analysis of Porcine Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase by Consensus Primer PCR

Sequencing data on the PCR product confirmed that Porcine CMV is a betaherpesvirus, and suggested that it is most closely related to HHV-6 and HHV-7.

Infection of porcine cells with human herpesviruses.


Porcine organs are valuable candidate materials for xenotransplantation to humans. Long-term maintenance of well functioning transplants is a prerequisite for success. Transplanted organs may be damaged by immune reactions or by infectious agents in hosts. Human herpesviruses (HHVs) establish life-long latency in humans after a primary infection. They can be reactivated with various stimuli, including immunosuppression. This study was performed to verify the infectivity of some HHVs toward porcine cells. PK-15 cells infected with HHV-1 and HHV-2 showed cytopathology from 1 day after infection. Immunofluorescent (IF) staining of HHV-1- and HHV-2-infected PK-15 cells with respective antibodies demonstrated the expression of the respective viral antigens. Permissiveness of PK-15 to HHV-1 and -2 was confirmed by an infection test on Vero cells. Islet cells infected with HHV-5 showed no gross morphologic changes during the experimental course. A limited portion of islet cells reacted only to anti-IE1 and anti-IE2, but not to anti-UL44 or anti-gB antibody by IF staining, whereas a small portion of endothelial cells reacted to anti-IEs and anti-UL44, but not to anti-gB antibody. HHV-1 and -2 can permissively infect porcine cells, but HHV-5 infects a small proportion of cells with limited viral protein expression. HHV-4 could not transform peripheral blood mononuclear cells from miniature pigs. Collectively, because some HHVs can infect and damage porcine cells or impair their functions, HHVs should be cautiously monitored and controlled in humans when porcine cells or organs are transplanted to human beings.

Latent Human Herpes Virus-6: functionally dormant but not extinct - a hidden 'transposon' awaiting the ideal trigger?
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) achieves latency by integrating into human genome. Can activation
of integrated HHV-6 shorten telomeres and cause unstable telomeric ends that contribute to
disease? Can activated, partial or full-length viral genome reintegrate into human chromosome
or is it lost completely? Can latent or activated HHV-6 influence the host cell through partial
transcription or translation? Preliminary data shows that chromosomally integrated HHV-6 is not
always silent.
Common drugs and environmental exposure can activate it. Whole or parts of viral
genome can shuffle in and out of host chromosomes resulting in genomic instability. Further,
the "semi-latent" virus is functionally active enough to influence cells without forming infectious
viral particles. Over 95% of human population carry latent HHV-6/-7 that can get activated
while exposed to specific, timely, relevant triggers. Hence, it might constitute a prime factor in
effectuating several human diseases, with thus far unidentified and unexplored origins.

Evidence linking HHV-6 with multiple sclerosis: an update

Publication date: December 2014 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 9 Author(s): Emily C Leibovitch , Steven Jacobson Following reports of elevated antiviral antibodies in MS patient sera and viral DNA detection in MS plaques nearly two decades ago, the neurovirology community has actively explored how herpesviruses such as HHV-6 might be involved in MS disease pathogenesis. Though findings across the field are non-uniform, an emerging consensus of viral correlates with disease course and evidence of HHV-6-specific immune responses in the CNS provide compelling evidence for a role, direct or indirect, of this virus in MS. Ultimately, the only way to demonstrate the involvement, or lack thereof, of HHV-6 or other herpesviruses in this disease is through a controlled clinical trial ...

Human Herpes Virus 6 Infection in 54 Patients after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Clinical Manifestations and Outcome

CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study confirms a correlation of HHV-6 with high morbidity and mortality rates after alloSCT, thus suggesting a regular HHV-6 monitoring in alloSCT recipients. The regular monitoring of HHV-6 DNA, using a real-time PCR assay, may be useful for identifying active HHV-6 infection and for the introduction of a pre-emptive treatment, possibly reducing the incidence of the most severe clinical complications. Despite HHV-6 detection typically occurred early after alloSCT, a better immune reconstitution has the potential to improve clinical outcome.

Technics Used For The Demonstration of HHV-6 or HHV-7 Antigens in Tissues

"Block non-specific reactivity with pig serum,
1:20 dilution in TBS buffer 10 min
and remove buffer by blotting"

Detection of two novel porcine herpesviruses with high similarity to gammaherpesviruses.

This Little Piggy has HHV-6

t-shirt, cartoon, hhv-6, pigs, pig, porcine

Is HHV-6 a Human and Porcine Virus?


Evidence for the existence of porcine gammaherpesviruses was obtained by PCR and sequence analysis. Initially, samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spleens, lungs, kidneys and livers of pigs from Germany and Spain were tested with a PCR assay which targets conserved regions of the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. Amplicons of identical sequence were obtained from one spleen and two PBMC samples. This sequence showed a high percentage of identity with the DNA polymerase genes of herpesviruses of the oncogenic subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. Alignment of amino acid sequences showed the highest identity values with bovine gammaherpesviruses, namely alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (68%), ovine herpesvirus type 2 (68%) and bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus (67%). Comparison with pseudorabies virus and porcine cytomegalovirus, which are the only porcine herpesvirus species presently known, showed values of only 41%. PCR analysis of PBMC (n = 39) and spleen (n = 19) samples from German pigs, using primers specific for the novel sequence, revealed a prevalence of 87 and 95%, respectively. In this analysis, three out of eight spleen samples from Spanish pigs were also positive. Subsequent sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of two closely related gammaherpesvirus sequences, differing from each other by 8% at the amino acid level. The putative novel porcine herpesviruses, from which these sequences originated, were tentatively designated porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 (PLHV-1 and PLHV-2). When using pig organs for xenotransplantation, the presence of these viruses has to be considered.

Presence of Antibody to Human Herpesvirus 6 in Monkeys

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