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Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in human herpesvirus-6-associated acute encephalopathy/febrile seizures.


To determine the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of acute encephalopathy associated with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection, we measured the levels of oxidative stress markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), tau protein, and cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from patients with HHV-6-associated acute encephalopathy (HHV-6 encephalopathy) (n = 16) and complex febrile seizures associated with HHV-6 (HHV-6 complex FS) (n = 10). We also examined changes in CSF-8OHdG and CSF-HEL levels in patients with HHV-6 encephalopathy before and after treatment with edaravone, a free radical scavenger. CSF-8-OHdG levels in HHV-6 encephalopathy and HHV-6 complex FS were significantly higher than in control subjects. In contrast, CSF-HEL levels showed no significant difference between groups. The levels of total tau protein in HHV-6 encephalopathy were significantly higher than in control subjects. In six patients with HHV-6 infection (5 encephalopathy and 1 febrile seizure), the CSF-8-OHdG levels of five patients decreased after edaravone treatment. Our results suggest that oxidative DNA damage is involved in acute encephalopathy associated with HHV-6 infection.

Neuroprotective effects of edaravone: a novel free radical scavenger in cerebrovascular injury.

Recanalization and neuroprotection have been mainly targeted for the specific treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Free radicals play a crucial role in brain ischemic injury by exacerbating membrane damage through peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids of cell membrane, leading to neuronal death and brain edema. Free radicals have been implicated in stroke pathophysiology as pivotal contributors to cell injury. Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) is a novel potent free radical scavenger that has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. Edaravone exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Edaravone provides the desirable features of NOS: it increases eNOS (beneficial NOS for rescuing ischemic stroke) and decreases nNOS and iNOS (detrimental NOS). Post- reperfusion brain edema and hemorrhagic events induced by thrombolytic therapy may be reduced by edaravone pretreatment. Increased productions of superoxide and NO in the brain after reperfusion and a concomitant surge in oxygen free radicals with increased NO during recirculation lead to formation of peroxynitrite, a superpotent radical. Edaravone, which inhibits oxidation and enhances NO production derived from increased eNOS expression, may improve and conserve cerebral blood flow without peroxynitrite generation during reperfusion. Clinical experience with edaravone suggests that this drug has a wide therapeutic time window. The combination therapy (a thrombolytic plus edaravone) is likely to target brain edema, reduce stroke death and improve the recovery from neurological deficits in stoke patients.

Wikipedia on Edaravone
Edaravone (Radicut) is a neuroprotective agent used for the purpose of aiding neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction.[1] It acts as a potent antioxidant and strongly scavenges free radicals, protecting against oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis.[2][3][4] It has been marketed solely in Japan by Mitsubishi Pharma since 2001.[1] and marketed in India by Edinburgh Pharmaceuticals by the brand name Arone
Edaravone has been shown to attenuate methamphetamine- and 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum and substantia nigra, and does not affect methamphetamine-induced dopamine release or hyperthermia.[5][6] It has also been demonstrated to protect against MPTP-mediated dopaminergic neurotoxicity to the substantia nigra, though notably not to the striatum.[7][8][9]

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Autism

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HHV-6 transmission:

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HHV-6 Treatment News: Endo Approved for Generic Valcyte

Use of valganciclovir in patients with elevated antibody titers against Human Herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) who were experiencing central nervous system dysfunction including long-standing fatigue.


Response to valganciclovir in chronic fatigue syndrome patients with human herpesvirus 6 and Epstein-Barr virus IgG antibody titers.

 Valganciclovir treatment, independent of the baseline antibody titers, was associated with self-rated improvement in physical and cognitive functioning for CFS patients who had positive HHV-6 and/or EBV serologies. Longer valganciclovir treatment correlated with an improved response.


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